The leukemia cells also live longer than normal cells, build up, and crowd out normal cells in the bone marrow. Chronic leukemias can take a long time before they cause problems, and most people can live for many years. But chronic leukemias are generally harder to cure than acute leukemias. Whether leukemia is myeloid or lymphocytic depends on which bone marrow cells the cancer starts in.
There are 4 main types of leukemia, based on whether they are acute or chronic, and myeloid or lymphocytic:. In acute leukemias, the bone marrow cells cannot mature the way they should.
These immature cells continue to reproduce and build up. Without treatment, most people with acute leukemia would only live a few months. Some types of acute leukemia respond well to treatment, and many patients can be cured. Other types of acute leukemia have a less favorable outlook. Lymphocytic leukemias start in the cells that become lymphocytes.
Lymphomas are also cancers that start in those cells. The main difference between lymphocytic leukemias and lymphomas is that in leukemia, the cancer cell is mainly in the bone marrow and blood, while in lymphoma it tends to be in lymph nodes and other tissues. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia CMML is another chronic leukemia that starts in myeloid cells.
What is leukemia? The selection of target organ for internal dosimetry may also lead uncertainty in various forms of lymphoma. Furthermore, unknown incidence data among the migrants and the small number of observed cases reduce the statistical power of the study. Despite these issues, the study has provided evidence of an increased risk of leukemia for external exposure and no association between plutonium exposure and either leukemia or lymphoma or multiple myeloma.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
PLoS One. Published online Sep Irina S. Labutina , 1 and Nezahat Hunter 2. Elena V.
Suminori Akiba, Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Investigation: EVL.
Resources: ISK. Validation: EVL. Writing — original draft: ISK.
Received Aug 11; Accepted Aug This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Introduction Lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers, namely non-Hodgkin lymphoma, NHL , Hodgkin lymphoma HL , multiple myeloma MM , and leukemia have been studied extensively among the Japanese A-bomb survivors, large groups of radiation workers and patients receiving radiotherapy and diagnostic irradiation [ 1 — 11 ]. Materials and Methods The study cohort and follow-up The study methods and cohort descriptions have been published in detail previously [ 13 , 14 , 16 ].
Table 1 Characteristic of Study Cohort by facility. Open in a separate window.
Fig 1. The distribution of diseases by calendar period between — External and internal radiation exposure The analyses were performed using external and internal dose estimates from Mayak Worker Dosimetry System MWDS [ 18 , 19 ]. Statistical Methods Poisson regression was used to test for an association between the incidence of HB diseases and exposure to both external gamma radiation and internal alpha radiation to red bone marrow.
Results As in previous analyses of the Mayak cohort [ 12 — 15 ], this study used the parametric approach for adjusting background rates. Internal exposure due to Pu Among the 77 cases of leukemia, 47 were monitored for plutonium exposure 7 cases among reactor workers who have zero internal dose.
RR No. External exposure The analysis of the incidence risks in relation to external red bone marrow dose showed that the relative risks increased consistently with increasing dose using a 2-year lag for all leukemia and all leukemia excluding CLL Table 3. Table 5 Factors modifying the relationship between cumulative external dose to bone marrow and leukemia incidence risk among Mayak PA workers.
Discussion This study has shown a statistically significant increasing trend in the incidence of leukemia and leukemia excluding CLL with total external occupational radiation dose to bone marrow irrespective of whether adjustment was made for internal bone marrow doses. Comparison with other studies A wide range of studies using mortality and incidence data have shown that leukemia can be caused by exposure to both acute and chronic external gamma radiation [ 1 — 11 ].
Table 6 Comparison of the Excess Relative Risk estimates of leukemia excluding CLL and subtypes incidence due to exposure to external radiation. Fig 2. Excess relative risk of leukemia excluding CLL due to accumulated external gamma-dose of 1 Gy in relation to time since exposure and attained age. Supporting Information S1 Table Description of variables used the study.
DOCX Click here for additional data file. Data Availability Data are available from the Southern Urals Biophysics Data Access for researches who meet the criteria for access to confidential data. References 1. Radiat Res. Risk of leukemia mortality from exposure to ionising radiation in US nuclear workers: a pooled case-controls study.
Occup Environ Med. The incidence of leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma among atomic bomb aurvivors: — Leukemia incidence in the Techa river Cohort: — Mortality and cancer incidence following occupational radiation exposure: third analysis of the National Registry for Radiation Workers.
Br J Cancer. Studies of the Mortality of Atomic Bomb Survivors, Report 14, —; An overview of cancer and noncancer diseases. Positive associations between ionizing radiation and lymphoma mortality among men. Am J Epidemiol. Richardson DB, Wing S. American Journal of Epidemiology. Cancer mortality risk among workers at the Mayak nuclear complex. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. United Nations, New York, Solid cancer incidence other than lung, liver and bone in Mayak workers: — Radiation risk of malignant neoplasms in organs of main deposition for plutonium in the cohort of Mayak workers with regard to histological types.
Health Phys. Lung, liver and bone cancer mortality in Mayak workers. Int J Cancer.
werederbu.tk Among these, the four most common types of leukemia include:. Lymphomas are cancers of the lymph glands and lymphatic system.
The two main types of lymphoma cancer are Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. According to the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society, about , people are currently living with lymphoma or are in remission. Hodgkin's lymphoma can occur in both children and adults and is one of the most curable forms of cancer. Hodgkin's lymphoma commonly affects lymph nodes in the neck or in the area between the lungs behind the breastbone. Hodgkin's lymphoma can also begin in groups of lymph nodes under the arms, in the abdomen, or in the groin.