Even astronauts speak about the Russian language's difficulty. Denmark's first astronaut, Andreas Mogensen, once said that learning Russian was his biggest challenge as he trained for an International Space Station mission. For her first six months of training, although "you knew the answer, you didn't know how to say it in Russian.
For about six months, I felt like a small child," she said in an interview published on NASA's website. The NASA astronauts participating in Mir in the s had varying levels of language training, and tended to do better with more exposure to Russian, said Megan Ansdell, a postdoctoral fellow in planetary sciences at the University of California, Berkeley. She wrote a Space Policy paper exploring the merits of an international language in space. The situation is much better for today's NASA astronauts, who receive years of training in Russian and even participate in home stays with Russian families to become more familiar with the language.
But having two ISS languages brings operational inefficiencies, Ansdell said. Additionally, the implicit requirement to know both English and Russian can limit the workforce pool for space station partners whose first language is neither," she said. But choosing another tongue to speak isn't all that simple. The ISS is governed in part by memorandums of agreement in which English is usually the operating language, although there are notable exceptions such as when inside the Russian Soyuz spacecraft.
Astronauts can operate in their native tongue in space when speaking with their own ground personnel, but they need to know at least enough English "to get by," said Michael Dodge, an assistant professor at the University of North Dakota who specializes in space law and policy. It could, for instance, become a thorny issue mired in geopolitical matters. Or, it could be much easier than one would think, as there are precedents in place already for a variety of space missions," he told Space.
Linguistic approaches to space: 5.
Murray 6. Who's there?
Preston Structure and dynamics of a language space: Lenz Pusch IV. Structure and dynamics across language spaces: Data collection and corpus-building: Data analysis and the presentation of results: Exemplary studies: Structural domains: Methodological problems: Notes Includes bibliographical references and index. View online Borrow Buy Freely available Show 0 more links Set up My libraries How do I set up "My libraries"? Curtin University Library. However, I hope this does not read as a deeply theoretical book.
After a lifetime of trying to understand architecture, I find it quite difficult enough without theories that seem only to obscure and overcomplicate. As a young research student I had been looking forward for some time to hearing a lecture by one of our leading and most influential ergonomists, who was due to visit the university where I was studying psychology.
At the time I was deeply disap- pointed by his lecture, and was arrogant and impudent enough to express this in a question at the end of his talk. He was surprisingly delighted with my impertinent question.
That is why I have to keep telling them to! His answer of course makes another important point for us here.
http://jordirocas.com/tmp/447/pisal-programas-espias.php The vast majority of what I shall say in this book is known and under- stood by you already. You know it because you rely on an implicit understanding of the language of space for everyday life. Yet every year I find that young students of design, when they enter their I hope this book helps readers to reconnect their everyday implicit knowledge with their more professional conceptual knowledge, and that as a result we get more spaces which help people and fewer that obstruct them!
Behavioural settings Whilst in this book we shall certainly consider the purely physical characteristics of spaces, the objects they contain and the envelopes that define them, there is something far more important to us than that. Of course we are all different, but in general ultimately it is our relationship not directly with spaces or buildings that matters most to us, but our relationships with other people.
What others think and expect of us is one of the most central of the influences that govern the way we lead our lives. It is our reputation and our association with others that we feel most strongly about.
So it is the way space facili- tates and inhibits these relationships with which we will be mostly concerned. Barker discussed psychology from what he called an ecolog- ical perspective Barker There are several great forces at work here, and perhaps the most important are those of privacy and community. It is how space enables these two appropriately that forms many of the basic components of the language we shall explore.
These two appear in almost every building and space we inhabit in some form or other. Other great forces are those of ritual, display and surveillance. Some spaces exist almost solely to allow us to act out social rituals, as in a church. Others serve to display, not just objects as in an art gallery, but also ourselves in our society. Some spaces need to permit the supervision of some of us by others.
This is most obviously so in a prison, but also more subtly in a hospital or a library. Space that facil- itates display may not be good at providing for privacy. Space that is public domain may need to be recognizably different to space that is private domain. We rely upon space to create places appropriate to certain kinds of behaviour and to tell us what they are.
Look at the illustration of a simple house that belongs to a German artist and is on one of the smaller islands of the Spanish Atlantic archi- pelago Fig. The owner, who has a small studio and gallery next door, can somehow capture the spirit of this place with the very minimum of brushstrokes.
We are standing in a narrow street of a small town looking over a low wall in which there is a small wrought- iron gate, which we cannot see in this picture. We could easily open the gate, and indeed it is so low it would take no more than a large stride to step over it!
However, we are in the totally public domain of the street. The path beyond, which we can see, is clearly semi-public. The postman or other delivery tradespeople will have to do this. We might get some strange looks if we simply dallied there, but no one is likely to question us if we are there briefly and appear to move purposefully.
Beyond is a larger gate that we can see has no lock. Again we can proceed, but there is nowhere else to go but straight to the front door, and we feel it only appropriate to enter this semi-private domain if we intend to go even further. At the end of this short space is the front door, locked and with a bell to announce our arrival. If the occupant is there, she will open the door and we will then be able to see a solid wall about a metre and a half away blocking our view of the inside of the house.
She can converse with us there quite privately, safe from prying eyes back on the street, or she may choose to invite us into the ultimate privacy of her home. It symbolizes and controls the transition from public through semi-public and semi-private areas to the private domain. It signals changes of possession, of territory, of control and of behaviour. It speaks the language of space as fluently and eloquently as many grander and more celebrated pieces of architecture.
Above all else, the message here is that our experience of space is an integrative one; it is just that to understand it better we need to dissect it and observe and analyse the constituent parts. In doing this, however, the balance of importance can easily become distorted.
Of course I too have my stylistic preferences and my weaknesses for some periods of history, particular architects and certain building materials. The rope barriers Other research amends our assumptions and we have gained new knowledge about human perception. The smallness of scale here is achieved by the low level of the eaves of the roof, brought down to give a rather low floor to ceiling height impression on the facade, even though rather more of the space in the sloping roof is actually used. Add a tag Cancel Be the first to add a tag for this edition. When you take up a new job you enter a world in which the settings have been modified to local needs and norms.
I find that much architectural criticism does this by neglecting what we might call the human dimension of space. Before we can discuss the rather more subtle elements of this language of space we need first to examine ourselves a little. We need to under- stand what drives us forward in life, and what our expectations and demands are from space.
Then we shall explore how we see and under- stand space. The book will examine the mechanisms that such percep- tion uses, and the ways in which it operates.